Caucasian babies are generally born with bluish-gray eyes, while babies of African-American or Asian descent usually have brown eyes at birth. Because the baby has just emerged from the dark, true eye color takes about a year to develop.
Eye color depends on the protein melanin, which is generated by specialized cells called melanocytes in response to light according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. Babies with only a small amount of melanin will have blue eyes; more melanin makes eyes green or hazel. Babies with the most melanin will have brown eyes, and if born with brown eyes, a child will likely develop darker brown irises over time.