Atoms gain or lose electrons based on their respective electron affinity. The greater the electron affinity of an atom, the more likely that atom is to accept an electron. Electron affinity changes based on the group of elements to which an atom belongs.Continue Reading
There are several factors that affect the electron affinity of an atom. The effective nuclear charge is the positive charge exhibited by the protons in the nucleus of an atom. The greater the effective nuclear charge of an atom, the greater its electron affinity. Because effective nuclear charge becomes stronger when traveling from right to left on the periodic table of elements, the electron affinity across a period exhibits a similar trend. Electron affinity generally follows the same increasing and decreasing trends across a periodic table as electronegativity, and one can be used to estimate the other when comparing two atoms of different elements.
The number of electrons required to fill the outermost electron shell also affects the electron affinity of an atom. Halogens such as chlorine and iodine require only one electron to have all their electron shells completely filled, and they have a strong electron affinity. Noble gases already have completely filled electron shells and do not require additional electrons for stability, giving them a very low electron affinity.Learn more about Atoms & Molecules
Atoms become chemically stable by losing, gaining or sharing electrons with other atoms to fill up their outermost electron shell. This allows them to obtain the electron configuration of the nearest noble gas.Full Answer >
Ionic compounds are formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to another, while covalent compounds are formed when both atoms share their electrons, resulting in no loss or gain of electrons for either atom, according to HyperPhysics. The atoms of covalent bonds are bound more tightly and form more stable molecules when compared to the atoms of ionic bonds, which show attraction to other nearby atoms.Full Answer >
The observed periodic trends in electron affinity are that electron affinity will generally become more negative, moving from left to right across a period, and that there is no real corresponding trend in electron affinity moving down a group in the periodic table. It is important to note that, in this case, an increased electron affinity is actually the value of the electron affinity becoming more negative.Full Answer >
Electron affinity is defined as the amount of energy emitted when an electron is added to a neutral atom in the gaseous state to form a negative ion. The energy of an atom is determined when the atom gains or loses energy through a chemical reaction that causes the gain or loss of electrons.Full Answer >