What Is the Apparent Movement of the Sun?

The apparent movement of the Sun describes the perceived phenomenon that the Sun moves through each zodiac constellation, making a full revolution around the celestial sphere every year. This is not factual; it is Earth's orbit around the Sun, on its 23.5-degree tilted axis, that gives this impression.

The notion of solar movement through the celestial sphere is a product of the geocentric, Earth-centered, models of the solar system espoused by ancient Greek astronomers. To them, Earth appeared to be a stationary object around which the Sun and stars orbited. The stars and constellations are so far away that they appear fixed in their positions next to each other, while the Sun is so much closer to the orbiting Earth that it appears to move between the Earth and stars, changing its position with the seasons.

Johannes Kepler utilized the Copernican heliocentric, Sun-centered, model almost 1,000 years after the ancients to accurately describe and predict the apparent motion of the Sun and planets.