A human foot has many structures, including bones, joints, nerves, blood vessel, muscles, ligaments and tendons. It has three sections, the forefoot, the midfoot and the hindfoot.
The hindfoot consists of the talus, or ankle bone, and the heel bone. The lower leg’s two long bones, the tibia and fibula, connect to the talus to form the ankle.
The midfoot consists of five bones collectively known as the tarsal bones. They include three cuneiform bones, the cuboid bone and the navicular bone.
The forefoot consists of five toes and five long bones that collectively form the metatarsus. The five long bones are called the metatarsals; together with the tarsal bones they allow the foot to support the body in an upright position.
The foot’s ligaments attach the bones to each other, whereas the tendons attach the muscles to the bones. The main tendon is the Achilles tendon, which connects the calf muscle to the heel. It allows people to rise up on their toes and is important to walking, running, jumping and climbing.
The foot has 20 muscles separated into two categories, extrinsic muscles and intrinsic muscles. The muscles are responsible for giving the foot its shape, providing support and creating movement.