Afferent neurons are special nerve cells that are responsible for carrying nerve impulses from the receptors to the central nervous system. Efferent neurons carry nerve impulses from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.
Afferent neurons are also known as sensory receptor neurons. For example, a touch stimulus creates a sensation in the brain only after the afferent neurons sense the stimuli and send the information about the stimuli.
Efferent neurons are also known as effector or motor neurons. These special nerve cells send signals from the central nervous system, so as to initiate an action.
The human body has millions of cells; those found in the central nervous system are called neurons or nerve cells, and they are responsible for carrying messages within the body. They also play a part in cellular processes such as energy generation and protein synthesis. Neurons have special cell parts called dendrites and axons. Dendrites carry signals to the cell body, whereas axons carry information away from the cell body.
The movement of information within the body is facilitated by interneurons. These are neurons that form a connection between two or more neurons creating a complex network of neurons. They are also referred to as association neurons. The interneurons facilitate the movement of information between the efferent neurons and the afferent neurons.