Abiotic factors of a pond are all elements that are in or that affect the ecosystem of a pond other than the living, or biotic, factors. Abiotic factors vary by pond and include a wide range of components such as temperature, stratification, density, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, salinity, and calcium and nitrogen levels. Even the length of the day and the climate are considered abiotic factors of a pond.
Other abiotic factors include the temperature of the air, humidity, wind, barometric pressure and air pollution, the pH of the water and its nutrient levels, and the type of soil in the pond. Density is an important abiotic factor because it affects the amount of light that passes through the water, and therefore what type of plants and other biotic factors can survive at various depths.
Some abiotic factors may be suspended in the water while others may be in the sediment at the bottom of the pond. Changes to abiotic factors can be subtle or catastrophic and can affect what plants and animals are able to live and thrive in the pond. As the ecosystem is altered because of changes in the abiotic factors, some die out while others change and adapt to the new environment.