Abiotic factors in the arctic tundra include frozen soil not far below the surface that is of poor quality. Strong winds are common, and there is very little rainfall, though there is usually enough moisture to grow some short plants.
Abiotic factors are those that do not involve animals or plants.
The average winter temperature is negative 34 degrees Fahrenheit. Average summer temperatures only reach into the teens. Because of its latitude, there are many hours of sunlight in the summer and very long nights in winter.
Man-made abiotic factors can include the effects of road grading, oil well drilling and oil spills.