Male turkeys have testicles located within the body, just above the kidneys. The testicles are bean-shaped and produce testosterone, which contributes to the development of the male reproductive tract, courting behavior and aggressiveness.
As sperm develop and mature, they may travel for up to four days through a narrow tube to the cloaca, an opening under the tail that combines digestive, urinary and reproduction functions. In both males and females, the cloaca swells to facilitate mating. In an act that takes only seconds, turkeys join their cloacae. The male ejaculates sperm into the female, an act referred to as a cloacal kiss. Following fertilization, the female lays up to 17 eggs that incubate from 25 to 31 days. Well-developed at birth, poults walk and feed themselves one day after being born.