Stingrays fertilize internally via sexual intercourse. During mating, the male stingray bites the female’s disc, which enables him to insert his clasper, or modified pelvic fin, into the female’s cloaca. The clasper then transfers the sperm into the female’s oviduct. The female stingray gives birth to live young.
The fertilized embryo stays inside the female until it is fully developed. It then hatches inside the mother and is born alive in a process called ovoviviparity. Because the egg is not attached to the placenta, it relies on the yolk sac and the mother’s uterine wall for nourishment.
Females typically have two to 10 pups per litter. Newborn pups are large enough to defend themselves and find their own food.