Starting a worm farm requires a habitat to rear and sustain the animals. A container or bin that is opaque, at least 8 inches deep and aerated with 1/4-inch holes is an adequate enclosure. Add damp compost or decomposed manure mixed with shredded newspaper or wood shavings as a bedding material inside the enclosure. When the enclosure is complete, introduce appropriate amounts of kitchen scraps or decomposed manure into the bedding to feed the worms.
Worms are sensitive to light and changes in temperature. A lidded enclosure that is opaque helps to ensure that the temperature inside remains constant, and allows the worms to escape harsh sunlight. Transporting the enclosure indoors during the summer and winter months further ensures that the worms are not exposed to temperatures that are lethal.
Worms require a moist habitat in order to survive. For this reason, the bedding inside the enclosure has to be moist but not saturated. The 1/4-inch holes in the sides and bottom of the enclosure allow it to drain any excess water from the habitat, preventing it from becoming too saturated. To maintain the moisture level of the bedding inside the enclosure, thoroughly check the bedding every few days, and spray it with water if it is necessary.
Once the worms in the enclosure have become active, the bedding in the enclosure must be aerated to provide the worms with sufficient levels of oxygen. To accomplish this, stir or rake the bedding thoroughly every few days.