Yellowhammer birds live in wooded and agricultural areas across much of Europe. They are typically found in farmlands, open and brushy country, and wooded pastures. The yellowhammer is also common in the United Kingdom and Ireland.
As of 2015, there has been a 50-percent decline in yellowhammer populations in the preceding 25 years due to modern farming practices that include sowing crops in autumn and the loss of winter stubble.
The yellowhammer was introduced to New Zealand in 1982 and has become widespread there. It is a sparrow-sized member of the bunting family, with a reddish brown rump and bright yellow breast and head.