The camels living in South America fall prey to large cats, such as leopards and jaguars. The camels of Africa and South Asia have no natural predators.
The African camels live in hostile, harsh environments, such as the Sahara Desert, where no large predators survive, preventing them from becoming prey. Naturally, predators like lions would typically eat camels as they do other hoofed animals, but many such predators cannot survive in the desert. Meat eaters are not adapted well enough to survive in desert terrain, while camels can go long periods of time without food or water, making the camel safe from predators.