Woodpeckers are a common predator of carpenter bees and their larvae. Some species of bee fly, or Bombyliidae, are also known to prey on carpenter bees through parasitoidism. Predators of bees in general include spiders, assassin bugs, wasps and birds.
The carpenter bee is found worldwide and builds nests in dead wood, bamboo and wooden structures. Approximately 500 species of carpenter bee are known, distributed across 31 subgenera. The carpenter bee, which resembles the bumblebee, is shiny, black, robust in composition and can reach more than 1 inch in length. Carpenter bees use their mandibles to tunnel through wood, discarding it as they pass through. A hole made by a carpenter bee is often perfectly circular.