Although all penguins live in the Southern Hemisphere, not every species of penguin lives in Antarctica. Several species exist in sub-zero climates, while others live in locations with temperatures regularly above 100 F. Generally, penguins become larger the farther south they live, according to PBS television show "Nature."
The majority of penguins live in temperate locations such as Australia and Argentina. The most famous and biggest penguin, the emperor, is found in Antarctica. It's the species shown in the documentary "March of the Penguins" and the feature film "Happy Feet." The king penguin, which is the second-largest species, lives north of Antarctica in Tierra del Fuego, South Georgia Island and the Falkland Islands, according to Mother Nature Network.