Female fowls are known as hens. "Fowl" refers to a bird that is used for food or is hunted, such as chicken, turkey, goose or pheasant.
Fowl specifically refers to birds in the order Galliformes. Birds in the Galliformes order are identified as large-bodied, ground-feeding animals or game birds. While females are collectively known as hens, male birds are identified differently according to the type of bird. Male chickens are known as roosters, male turkeys are known as toms, and male geese are identified as ganders. The females of the order differ from the males of the species in size and coloring.