White tigers live an average of 10 to 12 years in the wild. They are not a subspecies, but rather a rare color variant of the Bengal tiger.
White Bengal tigers are genetically known as chinchilla albinistic, which is a variant that removes orange pigmentation from their natural coat. This leaves the black stripes intact on a colorless or white background. The coloration is recessive, meaning that both parents must either be white or carry the gene in order for white offspring to be produced. Rarely, white tigers with no stripes may be born, though the genetics behind this color variant are not fully understood.