From conception to birth, a rabbit's gestation period ranges from 30 to 40 days. At its conclusion, a female rabbit, or doe, gives birth to between one and nine kits, or baby rabbits.
After nursing her young for one to two months, a doe's body is prepared to become pregnant again. So, with two to three months between conceptions, a doe can have as few as four litters in a year or as many as six. With the potential to give birth to over 50 kits annually, it is important that rabbits raised in captivity be maintained in gender-segregated quarters to keep their numbers in check.