Despite the harsh conditions of living in Antarctica, an emperor penguin can generally live for up to 20 years. Recent observations note that some individuals can even live upwards of 50 years.
Emperor penguins are the largest species of penguin. Both males and females reach about the same size, which is anywhere from 49 to 99 pounds. Emperors are the only penguin to breed during the Antarctic winter. During breeding, a female lays one egg and the male incubates it while the female returns to the water to feed. The pair then exchange roles in caring for the chick. Despite their care, the mortality rate for chicks is quite high, with an estimated 90 percent not surviving their first year.