Lions interact in social groups called prides. They also interact through nonverbal and verbal communication such as roars and growls. Some nonverbal interactions include grooming each other and scent marking.
Lion prides consist of several females and a few males, with females related to one another in most instances. When a lioness has cubs, the females stay with the pride while the males strike out on their own to find or create their own prides. African lion prides consist of up to 40 lions, the majority of them female with a three-male leadership. On the other hand, Asian lion males and females form two distinct prides, keeping genders separate except during breeding.
Once the lionesses give birth, something that occurs for all the mature females during the same period, the entire pride takes care of the cubs. The females also interact a great deal through hunting, which they do in large organized groups.
Lions interact through many forms of communication, whether it is verbal sounds used to warn others away or talk to each over long distances or scent communication to mark a pride's territory. Licking and grooming each other is a way that lions show affection toward each while rough-and-tumble behavior can be a form of play or aggression.