Jaguars primarily communicate through grunting, with the number, volume and tone of the grunts each having a different meaning. The number of grunts vary between seven and 12 depending on the sex of the jaguar and, if female, whether or not she is in a fertile period.
During a fertile period, a female jaguar grunts through the night in groups of between five and seven grunts. Male responses to fertility grunts are relatively hoarse and guttural. Other reasons for grunting include announcing their territories. Jaguars are generally solitary and ward off other jaguars both through vocalizations and by scraping ground and trees as well as by urinating and defecating in prominent locations.