Predators of flamingos include other birds, such as vultures and storks, pythons, wild pigs and other mammals such as lions, jackals and cheetahs. The risk of predation to flamingos varies depending on their surrounding environments. Flamingos in different parts of the world face threats from different species, with the exception of humans, who pose a risk to flamingos through activities like taking eggs for sustenance and altering flamingos' habitats.
Among all predators, flamingos suffer the highest death rates from attacks by other birds. Predatory birds such as lappet-faced and white-headed vultures feast on flamingo eggs, along with dead birds and juveniles. Egyptian vultures primarily attack flamingo eggs, and may even kill birds they do not consume. Marabou storks and tawny eagles also eat flamingo eggs while black kites eat dead flamingos, along with other dead organisms.
Although flamingos face the greatest threats from birds, low water levels in their aquatic habitats present a risk of predation from land animals. Large snakes and mammals, mostly large cats, attack flamingos when they can reach their breeding grounds. Flamingos in the Andes may be attacked by Andean foxes or native cats. Hyenas can attack African flamingos while flamingos in the Bahamas are attacked by feral pigs. Even flamingos in zoos are not always safe; animals such as coyotes, foxes, raccoon and dogs have killed enclosed flamingos.