The arctic tundra surrounds the North Pole and extends southward. Its characteristics are a very cold climate, a layer of permafrost in the soil, a short growing season and little precipitation. The population of animals and fish varies wildly because many species migrate to and from the tundra based on the season.
Arctic cod are not migratory fish. They tend to live in the deeper waters and serve as food for whales. Arctic flatfish also do not migrate. The only flatfish species in arctic waters is the righteye flounder, which lives in the mud in shallow water.
Several species of arctic salmon, which do migrate, are present in arctic waters. Chum, pink, sockeye and chinook take refuge in warmer waters, such as the Bering Sea, during the winter.
Arctic trout, also called arctic char or charr, can live in saltwater or freshwater, migrating to the ocean and back to freshwater to breed. Arctic trout is the only freshwater fish to survive in the arctic. It uses water from melting glaciers to swim upstream into lakes.Learn more about Fish