The two main predators of chameleons are the fiscal shrike and the boomslang. The fiscal shrike is a bird that catches its prey and throws it onto plant thorns before eating it. The boomslang is a venomous tree snake that preys on the chameleon.
Scientists have studied the effects of the chameleon's ability to change color and how it protects it from predators. The studies show that the chameleon can control its camouflage color and alter it as necessary, based on whether it's hiding from a bird or a snake. A few mammals may eat chameleons, but their main predators are birds and snakes.