The Canine Massage Therapy Centre explains that dogs get cramps in the same way that humans do. Cramps occur when the muscle experiences a prolonged tightening due to overexertion.
VetInfo explains that neurological issues and physical exertion are common causes of cramping or muscle spasms in dogs. The website also explains that sick pets are more prone to cramps than healthy dogs as viruses can change the way they move, resulting in a greater chance of muscular injury. VetInfo notes that the best way to determine if your dog is experiencing a cramp is to look for liming and other changes in movement.