Dogs have brains, and they are similar in structure and function to human brains. Dog intelligence has been compared to that of a 2-year-old child.
Dogs, like humans and other mammals, have brains that are divided into three sections: cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. Humans have a very large cerebrum. This is the part of the brain that thinks.
The cerebellum and brain stem control involuntary functions, such as keeping balance and breathing.
The cerebrum is further divided into sections dedicated to certain tasks, such as visual processing. In dogs, a very large section of the cerebrum is dedicated to analyzing odors. Although human and dog brains differ in the relative sizes of these cerebrum areas, both species use the same areas of the cerebrum to process voice and emotion.