Behavior modification is a type of dog training that focuses on changing the dog's underlying emotional state and reactions in certain situations as opposed to teaching it to do specific behaviors on command. People typically use it to deal with fearful or aggressive dogs.
Obedience commands are usually a part of behavioral modification, which also uses techniques such as counter-conditioning and gradual desensitization to increase a dog's comfort level and change its behaviors. Behavior modification typically relies on positive training techniques and avoids aversive punishments or corrections, which can strengthen negative associations and increase the dog's fear or aggression. It may also include environmental changes, such as different management techniques or anti-anxiety medications for fearful dogs.