The American Kennel Club recognizes only one breed of mastiff. In a broader sense, the term "mastiff" can refer to any large dog breed believed to have a common ancestor in the area between Albania and Greece.
The mastiff as recognized by the AKC is a large, powerful dog of the Working Group. It was recognized by the AKC in 1885 but is believed to trace back to dogs depicted on Egyptian monuments 5,000 years ago. Related breeds, sometimes called mastiffs, include the Dogue de Bordeaux of France, the Fila Brasileiro of Brazil, the Boerboel of South Africa, the Dogo Cubano of Cuba and the Bully Kutta of India.