The two main types of native deer in Texas are white-tailed deer and mule deer. A sub-species of the white-tailed deer, the Del Carmen deer, is found in small numbers. Non-native species of deer include axis deer, Blackbuck, fallow deer, nilgai and sika deer.
The most common species of deer native to Texas is the white-tailed deer. Over 3 million white-tailed deer are estimated to make their home Texas. White-tailed deer are found throughout the state and prefer brushy or wooded habitats.
Mule deer are located in the western part of the state, and most of the population is found in the Trans-Pecos area, the Panhandle and the western Edwards Plateau. Mule deer populations fluctuate from between about 150,000 to 250,000, but the population has been increasing as of 2014.
The Del Carmen deer, a small white-tailed species, is found only in the Big Bend region, specifically the high valleys of the Chisos Mountain range. Their numbers are very limited, but they are native to Texas.
Exotic deer from around the world have been introduced to Texas to bolster hunting. Most are found on ranches designed for hunts, but some do roam free in certain areas. The axis deer is the most common exotic deer and is found in Central and South Texas. Blackbuck and fallow deer are located in nearly 100 Texas counties. The sika deer is found on ranches in the same regions as the axis deer. Nilgai are mostly limited to two Texas counties.