Two different diseases that affect turkeys are Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, or ORT, and Clostridium perfringens. Both of these diseases are very dangerous to turkeys and require antimicrobial medication, such as erythromycin or penicillin.
Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale can spread through direct or indirect contact and is recognized in many countries as a contributing factor to respiratory disease. As of 2015, researchers have found 18 different types of the disease, making it difficult to treat. Additionally, the disease builds antibiotic resistance very quickly, meaning that the best approach to treating an outbreak is to first identify the specific strain that has appeared and what drugs are most commonly used in the area. Some vaccinations have proven effective, and the bacteria is very sensitive to chemical disinfectants. Proper cleaning after an infection is a must after treatment, as without proper cleaning, the bacteria can resurface and spread again.
Clostridium perfringens is a disease that can cause tissue death, lesions and inflammation in the walls of the intestines in turkeys. In severe cases of the disease, the inflammation can spread throughout the entire digestive tract. Treatment for this disease usually includes administering antibiotics. Penicillin, ampicillin, tetracyclin and dihydrostreptomycin are some of the most effective types of antibiotics, although the bacteria can develop a resistance to any one of these treatments. Proper monitoring of the resistances around one's specific geographical area is highly recommended.