Sardine is a generic term used to refer to small, silvery saltwater fish that are related to the herring and are found worldwide. Anchovy refers to a family of small fish found in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Atlantic and Pacific coasts.
The term sardine was first used in English in the 15th century and is believed to have originated from the Mediterranean island of Sardinia. The sardine canning industry flourished in the United States in the 1950s, but has decline since then. The Stinson Seafood Plant in Maine was the largest sardine cannery in the United States and went out of business in 2010. The anchovy ranges in length from less than 1 inch to over 15 inches. Anchovies serve as an important food source for most predators in their environment.