The earliest indirect evidence of horse riding dates from 3,500 B.C. in the form of jawbone remains from Kazakhstan, in Central Asia. Based on archaeological finds and contemporary artwork, it is certain that by 2,000 B.C., horses were used for pulling loads and riding in Central Asia.
The Kazakhstan horse remains come from a settlement that was already extensively farming horses for their meat and milk. The teeth show patterns of wear that indicate that the horse wore a hard bit in its mouth while alive. This suggests that the horse was bridled for the purpose of riding or pulling loads. There are also numerous tools from the same site that were most likely used to create leather thongs suitable for bridles, whips and harnesses for horse riding.