Pancytopenia causes low red blood cell count, anemia and low platelets with a fever in dogs. Pancytopenia does not refer to one specific disease, but rather to a number of different blood related deficiencies that cause these problems.
According to PetMD, pancytopenia is a lack of cells circulating in the blood and can cover a variety of blood related diseases ranging from non-regenerative anemia to leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. Non-regenerative anemia indicates there is a low red blood cell count while leucopenia indicates a low white blood cell count. Thrombocytopenia refers to a low platelet count and a decreased ability for blood coagulation.
Symptoms may vary in the dog depending on what kind of pancytopenia the animal is dealing with. However, associated symptoms can be fever, persistent infection, sluggishness, pale gums, small bruises on the dog's body, or bleeding such as blood in the dog's urine or nosebleeds. Pancytopenia can stem from infectious diseases such as hepatitis; ehrlichiosis, which can be transferred from ticks; interaction with poisons; cancer; or immune diseases. Pancytopenia cannot be prevented on a whole but taking precautions such as vaccinating your dog against infectious diseases may help to prevent your animal from contracting any of these blood related deficiencies.