Only one breed of dog, the Caucasian Ovcharka, is referred to as a Caucasian. However, the Caucasian Ovcharka belongs to a breed group known as Molossers, which also includes Tibetan Mastiffs, Boxers and English Bulldogs.
The Caucasian Ovcharka, or Caucasian Shepherd Dog, comes from the Caucasus, Georgia and Armenia. It is a guard dog of both homes and herds and belongs to the working group of dogs. Caucasians are large, muscular and robust, but their body type differs depending on their region of origin. Dogs from mountainous regions are more solid, while steppe dogs are lankier with shorter coats. Coat colors range from white through gray and brown to black. Caucasian Ovcharkas are faithful, protective and hardy and are capable of tolerating and thriving in diverse climates and environments.
Molosser dogs originate from the Molosser region of southern Europe. They are strong and muscular and most often function as guard dogs or shepherd dogs but some, such as the Newfoundland and Saint Bernard, aid in search and rescue work in cold environments. The Swiss Mountain Dog, historically, pulled small carts. The name Molosser comes from King Molossus, the grandson of the Greek hero Achilles. Today, these dogs vary widely in appearance and are suitable for a wide range of environments and jobs.