The social patterns, mating behaviors, coat colors and vocalization capacities are all adaptations that help cardinals survive. According to National Geographic, cardinals are classified as songbirds; males and females have expansive vocal repertoires and may remember up to two dozen melodies, calls and songs.
Male and female cardinals vary remarkably in appearance: males have bright red coats, while females’ feathers are tan or light brown. The color of males' coats varies considerably among individuals. Coat color is an indicator of health and breeding potential: females are attracted to males with the most brilliant colors. Cardinals are generally social birds and generally congregate in flocks, although they branch off into monogamous partnerships during the breeding season.