Ants mate during nuptial flight, when the queen ant flies around releasing pheromones that attract males that attach to her and mate. Queen ants will fly fast to escape the males ensuring that only the strongest males are able to catch her for mating.
Once the queen mates she will find a location to begin a new colony. She lays her eggs and takes care of the larvae until they develop into pupae. The male ants that mated with the queen will die.
Regular ant larvae will grow into wingless females that act as the worker ants. Any larvae given special care may grow into a new queen. Few ants are males as the sole purpose of male ants is to mate with the queen, so there is no need for a large number of male ants.