Leopards are primarily hunted by humans but also suffer from predation, especially as young animals, by lions, tiger, hyenas and African wild dogs. Humans kill leopards for trophies and as pests, since hungry leopards sometimes attack livestock or even human beings.
Both lions and tigers are larger than leopards, and adult leopards are sometimes killed in territorial disputes with these species. Leopards are solitary, so despite being as large or larger than individuals of either species, they also remain vulnerable to hyenas and wild dogs into adulthood. Their primary defense against these other predators is their cryptic coloration and stealth, which they also use to hunt.
Despite this vulnerability, leopards are the most numerous of the big cats, in part because they tolerate living close to humans. They have a very wide range of territory, stretching from western Asia into Africa. They are found in a wide variety of habitats, including forests, grasslands, mountains, scrub and desert. Their populations are still considered threatened, however, and they are in decline as their habitats are decreased and fragmented by human activity. Their small populations are protected throughout their Asian range, but they are vulnerable in many places such as their well-populated African habitats.