Vedic mathematics is the name given to an ancient system of Indian mathematics that's based on simple rules and principles. Its premise is that any mathematical problem, such as arithmetic, algebra, geometry or trigonometry, can be solved orally by using 16 Vedic sutras. These sutras are short, poetic phrases describing one-line formulas that allow for natural ways of solving mathematical problems.
The sutras take poetic form because the Indians in the Vedic age wrote all technical knowledge, including textbooks, in such verses. This was done to make memorization easier and to lighten the burden of education. A single sutra can describe a variety of applications. An example is the phrase "All from 9 and the last from 10," which can be applied to the problem of subtracting 4,679 from 10,000. Using this phrase, each digit in 4,679 is subtracted from 9, while the last digit is subtracted from 10, giving a difference of 5,321.
The treatises that make up Vedic mathematics also lay the foundations of various math operations, such as square roots, cubic roots and the concept of zero. Vedic mathematics was rediscovered by Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji between 1911 and 1918 from the Vedas. The Vedas are ancient Indian texts written around 1500-1900 BCE that contain records of human experience and knowledge.