The Roman numerals that correspond to the Arabic numerals 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 are I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX and X, respectively. The Roman numeric system uses an additive and subtractive approach in forming numbers.Continue Reading
The Ancient Romans utilized a combination of letters to denote numerical values. These "base" numerals are "I," "V," "X," "L," "C," "D," and "M," which have equivalent values of 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000. Any other number can be represented using the additive and subtractive rules established by the Ancient Romans, which have been modified for contemporary usage.
The additive rule states that when a larger-valued notation precedes a smaller-valued symbol, the latter is added to the former. For example, the "I" in the Roman numeral "VI" is added to "V," since "V" has a higher value than "I." This can be represented by the equation V + I or 5 + 1, which is equal to 6. In the case of the Roman numeral "II" both symbols are also added since they have identical numerical values. For instance, I + I is also equal to 1 + 1, which is equivalent to 2.
The subtractive rule is applied when the opposite occurs, namely when a smaller-valued symbol precedes a larger-valued notation. This particular rule also serves as a shorthand method for signifying numbers that require four of the same symbols in a row, such as 4, 9 and 40. For example, instead of using "IIII" to represent 4, the Roman numeral "IV" is used. This means that "I" is subtracted from "V," which can be denoted by the equation V - I or 5 - 1, which is equal to 4.Learn more about Numbers