The prime factorization of 27 is 3x3x3. To perform prime factorization on a number, the number is broken down until only prime numbers remain. The answer can be checked by multiplying the prime factors together to see if they equal the original number.
Prime factorization can be performed using a few different methods, but one of the most common is the factor tree. The original number is placed at the top of a piece of paper with two lines drawn below it to connect it to two of its factors. This process is then repeated for the factors over and over until the numbers on the bottom level of the tree are all prime.