Math facts, or math fluency facts, are the basic rules of calculation that enable elementary school students to solve common math problems. An understanding of these basic rules and facts is required to perform common fifth-grade level math calculations. An elementary school student's proficiency in solving math problems at their educational level is relative to how well they can accurately and quickly recall and apply basic multiplication, division, addition and subtraction facts.
Students who have the appropriate level of math fact fluency can typically recall and apply the correct multiplication, division, addition or subtraction rule in about 2 seconds. A common measurement of a student's math fact fluency is the number of correct calculations that can be performed per minute using each of the four basic categories. Students who can understand, recall and apply the basic math facts are able to progress to the more demanding calculations, such as determining the product of 1,758 multiplied by 54, or finding the quotient when 5,267 is divided by 384.
Proficiency in using the basic math facts decreases the apprehension students may feel towards moving on to more complex calculations. They also develop greater cognitive abilities as they engage in more challenging problems. Elementary school math teachers rely upon a variety of remedial interventions when students are observed to be lacking in math fact fluency. Some intervention techniques used to help students to learn and apply basic math facts include games, worksheet drills, flash cards, self-modeling, taped problems and songs.