Blaise Pascal, Pierre de Fermat and Évariste Galois are a few of the most famous French mathematicians. Pascal and de Fermat were known for the work they accomplished related to probability; Galois was a renowned algebraist.
The mathematical theory of probability was created in 1654 by two mathematicians after a gambling dispute. These mathematicians were Pascal and de Fermat. They were approached by a French nobleman who was concerned with the fairness of a favorite dice game. He was concerned that the dice were not being thrown enough times and wanted to make sure the probability was matching up with the risks he was taking with his money. Before de Fermat and Pascal were able to look at the chances and probability of dice games, there were no official records of any type of established probability theories. Some Italian mathematicians previously studied the same dice games, but were never able to come up with a concrete theory. Pascal and de Fermat were the first to create official theories and later used their probability theory in applications other than games of chance.
During the 1800s, Galois was able to understand that there is no way to solve a fifth-degree polynomial or any polynomial that is higher than five. Before being killed in a mysterious dual, he contributed to algebraic theories and helped to create the first group of theories. His discovery of impossible polynomial solvent is still used in mathematics.