Factor pairs are two numbers that, when multiplied together, equal another number, or product. For instance, one and 12, two and 6, and three and four are the three factor pairs for the number 12.
The order of the numbers in the pair does not matter. The factor pair three and four is the same as four and three. When the product is divided by one member of the factor pair, the answer is always the other member. For a number under 50, finding its factor pairs is relatively simple. For each number, one is partnered with the number itself in a factor pair. Next, two is tried to see if it divides evenly into the number. Finally, three is tried and all subsequent numbers are systematically tried until all the factor pairs have been identified.