Exponential math is any mathematical operation involving an exponent, which is the number or symbol placed above and after another number or symbol to indicate the power to which the former number is to be raised, Wikipedia explains. The operation 4 x 4, for example, is written exponentially as 4^2.
An exponent can be any number, positive or negative. An exponent can be a fraction, an integer or an irrational number like pi. An exponent can be a complex term with variables, for example 2^(2x +1) means 2 raised to the power of the quantity 2x + 1. Increasing the exponent causes the result to grow dramatically. While 4^2 = 16, 4^3 = 64, and 4^4 = 256. This rapid increase is called exponential growth.