Carl Gauss is famous for his number of contributions to both the math and science fields, including the Golden Theorem, 17-sided polygon and his book, "Disquisitiones Arithmeticae." Gauss is considered one of the greatest mathematicians of the 19th century.
One of Gauss' most notable discoveries was his work on predicting when and where the asteroid Ceres would appear again in the sky. Astronomers of the time had thought that the asteroid was a planet, but lost sight of it. When their observations were passed to Gauss, he calculated its next location. Gauss also went on to develop a method to predict the orbit of new asteroids.