Arithmetic is the study of basic numerical calculations. There are four primary arithmetic functions: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Together with parenthetical and exponential functions, these operations can solve complex mathematical equations in a specific order as dictated by the order of operations rule.
Arithmetic establishes the foundation for the mathematical sciences and includes elementary concepts such as counting, rounding, whole number representation and the significance of place values to more advanced studies such as rational numbers, algebra, trigonometry and calculus.
Commonly known as the acronym PEMDAS, the rule of order of operations states that an equation is to be solved in the following order: the operations in parentheses first, followed by exponential components, multiplication and division elements, and finally the addition and subtraction elements.