A "basic fact" in math is defined as any mathematical number, fact or idea instantly recalled without resorting to strategies, according to NZCER.org. The main basic facts encountered in math are "whole-number" basic facts, in particular multiplication, addition, division and subtraction.
According to the University of Chicago, children should have automatic recall of basic addition and subtraction facts by the time they finish the second grade and automatic recall of basic multiplication and division facts by the end of the fourth grade. Fact extension practice is key when teaching basic math concepts. An example of this is a student learning 3 + 4 = 7, and then learning 30 + 40 = 70 and 300 + 400 = 700.