In the traditional language of flowers, yellow chrysanthemums symbolize slighted love. Yellow flowers of other species, such as roses, carnations and lilies, can symbolize jealousy, loss of love, rejection or falsity.
Flowers have been used as symbols for thousands of years. Floriography, the language of flowers, became popular in Victorian English society and pre-Civil War American society to express sentiments that could not be voiced openly. Generally, white flowers symbolize truth or innocence, while red flowers indicate love or attraction, but most flowers have multiple possible meanings. The language of flowers is also present in art, most notably in the work of the Pre-Raphaelite artists of the 19th century.