In addition to sunlight and warm weather, corn requires rich, loamy soil with moderate moisture content and plenty of drainage. The pH levels for soil in which corn grows should measure between 5.8 and 6.8. This makes the soil moderately acidic, as corn does not grow well in alkaline soil.
Adding organic material to the soil can help keep corn healthy. Many farmers add compost, leaves and other organic material to the soil before planting, especially if the natural soil is too sandy for corn's tolerance.
Corn prefers moist soil, but it is important for farmers to avoid oversaturating the soil. Drip irrigation systems and soakers are the most effective because spray irrigation can wash away pollen.