Topography, large bodies of water and urban areas are three things that can create microclimates on a large scale. Small-scale microclimates are created by items such as houses, fences, rocks, ponds, raised beds, soil types and paved surfaces.
A microclimate is a climate of a specific place within an area that is different from the area that surrounds it. The climate may be colder or warmer, drier or wetter. Microclimates can be large areas or they can be small. An example of a large-scale microclimate is an area near a large body of water, such as the Great Lakes. An example of a small microclimate is an area in a yard protected from the wind by a wall or fence.