There are several methods of removing rust from metal, and they include manually removing the rust by sanding, grinding or scouring, using chemicals to dissolve the rust and by using chemicals to convert or neutralize the rust. Iron and steel products will eventually develop rust at some point. In order to make these products last longer, it's important to not only stop rust from spreading, but also to take measures that prevent its formation.
To remove rust manually, use a preferred abrasive material such as a grinder or a sander. For larger iron or steel objects, use a power tool such as a grinder that has a stripping disc. For smaller jobs, use a traditional sander. Use either the sander or the grinder to strip off the rust and the pockmarks created by it. Once all of the rust has been removed, use a fine grit sander to smooth out the surface.
For chemical rust removal, wear protective clothing, a respirator, gloves and goggles before handling the chemicals. Rust removers contain either hydrochloric or phosphoric acid to dissolve the rust. Apply the preferred chemical with an old paintbrush, and let it sit according to manufacturer recommendations. Use a spatula or a putty knife to strip off the dissolved rust.
If using a rust converter, apply the converter or neutralizer either by spraying or brushing it on the rusted surface. Once dry, the coat will also work as a primer.